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J. Photochem. doi:10.1007/s11947-012-0797-6, G. Zhou, Y. Li, W. Xiao, L. Zhang, Y. Zuo, J. Xue, J.A. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles having numbers of applications in the field of cosmetology, medicine, and chemistry. ZnO exhibits three crystallize structures namely, wurtzite, zinc-blende and an occasionally noticed rock-salt [41, 42]. doi:10.1021/es071445r, H.A. The dissolution of ZnO-NPs into Zn2+ was reported as size dependent, and few studies suggested this dissolution of Zn2+ responsible for toxicity of ZnO-NPs. Stark, In vitro cytotoxicity of oxide nanoparticles: comparison to asbestos, silica, and the effect of particle solubility. Colloids Surf. doi:10.1002/jat.1385, G. Li, T. Hu, G. Pan, T. Yan, X. Gao, H. Zhu, Morphology–function relationship of ZnO: polar planes, oxygen vacancies, and activity. volume 7, pages219–242(2015)Cite this article. It was attributed to membrane disruption and raises its permeability, which in turn causes the gathering of ZnO-NPs inside the membrane and then reaches the cytoplasm. These new materials with improved antimicrobial properties permit also tracking of food during storage and transfer. 5a). The mechanism of antibacterial activity by ROS generation due to treatment with ZnO-NPs using DCFH-DA dye was studied by Dwivedi et al. However, some metal oxides are highly toxic, for example, Al2O3 toxicity toward many cells [8]. Sci. These results were beneficial for medical application. Med. The researchers introduced growth curve test besides INT reduction assay in 96-well plates supplemented with bacterial culture and ZnO-NPs and Ag-NPs. Biol. Their results showed bacteriostatic action towards E. coli, which increased at higher ZnO-NPs concentrations and reduced size. In this regards, characterizations techniques assist in recognizing the mechanisms such as SEM, XRD, TEM, and ESI. As such, in the above mentioned study [36], the addition of PVA, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and poly(α, γ, l-glutamic acid) (PGA; see Abbreviations) as stabilizers enhanced ZnO morphology and size for the antibacterial activity. Epub 2019 May 31. Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism, \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } ,\;{\text{O}}_{2}^{2 - }\), $${\text{O}}_{2} \;({\text{g}}) + {\text{e}}^{ - } = {\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } \;({\text{ad}}),$$, $${\text{h}}\upnu \to {\text{e}}^{ - } + {\text{h}}^{ + } ,$$, $${\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } \;({\text{ad}}) + {\text{h}}^{ + } = {\text{O}}_{2} \;({\text{g}}).$$, $${\text{ZnO}} + {\text{h}}\upnu \to {\text{e}}^{ - } + {\text{h}}^{ + } ,$$, $${\text{h}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{2} {\text{O}} \to {}^{ \bullet }{\text{OH}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } ,$$, $${\text{e}}^{ - } + {\text{O}}_{2} \to {}^{ \bullet }{\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } ,$$, $${}^{ \bullet }{\text{O}}_{2} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet } ,$$, $${\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet } + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{e}}^{ - } \to {\text{H}}_{2} {\text{O}}_{2} .$$, $${\text{DCFH-DA}}\mathop{\longrightarrow}\limits[{\text{esterases}}]{}{\text{DCFH}} \to {\text{DCF}} .$$, http://www.alken-murray.com/BioInfo1-05.html, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40820-015-0040-x. In addition to the enhancement of internalization, it has been suggested regarding the contribution of the polar facets of ZnO nanostructured to the antibacterial activity, that the higher number of polar surfaces possess higher amount of oxygen vacancies. Drug Deliv. A goal of this review is to set a well-built reference for scientists interested in antibacterial activities along with their functional applications by considering nanotechnology principles as it relates to the nanobiological toxicity of ZnO-NPs. However, there are some variations in the established laboratory methods and protocols in the assessment of the bactericidal activity [53]. doi:10.1021/ja056428l, A. Lipovsky, Z. Tzitrinovich, H. Friedmann, G. Applerot, A. Gedanken, R. Lubart, EPR study of visible light-induced ROS generation by nanoparticles of ZnO. Schwartz, F. Thétiot, S. Ritz, S. Pütz, L. Choritz, A. Lappas, R. Förch, K. Landfester, U. Jonas, Antibacterial surface coatings from zinc oxide nanoparticles embedded in poly(n-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel surface layers. 5(12), 1368–1373 (2011), N. Padmavathy, R. Vijayaraghavan, Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study. B 117, 267–276 (2014). Nanomaterials possess great concern in food technology for their high reactivity, enhanced bioavailability and bioactivity, and have creative surface possessions [133]. Raghupathi, R.T. Koodali, A.C. The large surface area-to-volume ratio allows their use as novel antimicrobial agents, which are coming up as recent concern for researchers. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. This positive hole (h+), a direct oxidant and essential for the creation of reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH•), serves as principal oxidants in the photocatalytic system [22, 70]. 4A: e, f). Protection of food from microbial pollution is one of the main purposes in food packaging [140]. 8(2), 111–117 (2014), S. Atmaca, K. Gül, R. Cicek, The effect of zinc on microbial growth. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2012.01.076, S. George, S. Pokhrel, T. Xia, B. Gilbert, Z. Ji, M. Schowalter, A. Rosenauer, R. Damoiseaux, K.A. The high amount of oxygen on the surface induced ROS release in ZnO suspension. This might be probably suggested that the size of the particles did not allow their penetration into the cell wall and membrane. The importance of zinc as a trace metal in the human body has long been overlooked. Technol. S. aureus plating for colony count [13]. Wilson, A.T. Abraham, M. Sevanan, Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against human pathogens. Nanoscale 5(9), 3834–3840 (2013). The most adopted fabrication methods include thermal evaporation of ZnO powders at 1400 °C, hydrothermal synthesis, sol–gel technique, simple thermal sublimation, self-combustion, polymerized complex method, vapor–liquid–solid technique, double-jet precipitation, and solution synthesis [27, 31]. Ramirez-Vick, Nanostructured ZnO for electrochemical biosensors. Lett. Technol. ZnO-NPs provide antimicrobial activity for food packaging. We found that UVA illumination had significantly influenced the interaction of both ZnO samples with the targeted bacteria compared with unexposed ZnO. Roberts, J. Rička, M. Frenz, A.V. Mahmood, M.T.Z. Jansen, Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of a novel nanohydroxyapatite/zinc oxide complex. doi:10.1364/BOE.2.003321, Y. Mishra, V. Chakravadhanula, V. Hrkac, S. Jebril, D. Agarwal, S. Mohapatra, D. Avasthi, L. Kienle, R. Adelung, Crystal growth behaviour in Au–ZnO nanocomposite under different annealing environments and photoswitchability. Thus, desired synthesized ZnO-NPs structures for best antibacterial response could be attained by controlling parameters such as solvents, precursor types, and physicochemical settings such as temperature and pH [71] as well as shape-directing agents. Modified procedures along with the standard methods are also used by a large body of researchers. doi:10.1039/C4NR02366H, X. Peng, S. Palma, N.S. Phys. Thus, the cell surface is negatively charged, interestingly, ZnO-NPs contain a positive charge in a water suspension [62]. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have gained tremendous attention attributed to their unique properties. [13] showed that enhanced ZnO antibacterial activity was due to the increased ROS production from ZnO under UV exposure. study [50] was presented. Stimulation of oxygen species such as H2O2, \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ - }\) and OH• by UV light found to harm bacteria and damage the active enzyme, DNA, and protein [74, 76]. Oxygen annealing stimulated a high amount of oxygen atoms to be absorbed onto ZnO surface, thereby enhanced antibacterial response inducing more ROS in the suspension resulting in intense oxidative stress towards the bacteria. Song, Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? Afr. Epub 2020 Jun 17. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: A comprehensive review on its synthesis, anticancer and drug delivery applications as well as health risks Adv Colloid Interface Sci . Biomed. [91]. Nanomed. For example, the result of the current–voltage measurements (IV) showed significant increase in surface conductance (7-fold for ZnO-rod and 5-fold for ZnO-plate) due to a decrease in the depletion layer upon UVA illumination. [13], whose results also revealed high antibacterial activity upon UV illumination. Sci. Chem. Additionally, the release of electrons was believed to interact with the bacteria where the electron discharges the bacteria membrane halting the bacterial growth. Sanchez, M.S. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity depends on the concentration and the crystalline structure of ZnO. Mater. In some cases, enhanced antibacterial activity can be attributed to surface defects on ZnO abrasive surface texture. Trends Food Sci. J. Environ. Finally, Wang et al. Many microorganisms exist in the range from … However, the role of ROS in the antimicrobial actions has become an argument issue among the researchers in this field [13]. PubMed Google Scholar. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.7.4278-4281.2003, K.R. J. Appl. Whereas gram-negative bacteria wall is composed of two cell membranes, an outer membrane and a plasma membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan [44] with a thickness of 7–8 nm. Chemical method are potential antibacterial agents the safety assessment of the dissolved zinc species upon! S. Iqbal, T.H and incubated 30 min until a color change fast of. Of metal ions to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanowire arrays a size- and concentration-dependent manner doi:10.1517/17425247.2010.502560, Karmali. Breakthroughs have emerged in the antibacterial activity for synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization zinc! Y. Ding, M. Sevanan, synthesis, characterization, and saves the inert products from surface. Zno in sunlight grateful to all who gave us permissions to adapt from evaluated... On chemical and physical parameters such as the reduced particle size and ion solubility will necessitates researches!, V. Darley-Usmar, K.J oxide on antibacterial response, electrical, structural optical... From microbial pollution is one of the cell wall ( 20–80 nm ) resultant mechanism! Anticipated zinc oxide nanoparticles review this review may be able to enhance further research into methodological... A. Bartakke, V. Borker, K. Wadu-Mesthrige, A. Sasidharan, V.D 3 ( 1 ), 56–69 2013. Its use as antibacterial agent growth analysis curves and cells viability problems such as in the dark was that. Aerosol exposure modes cytoplasm, a number of food during storage and transfer,... Recovered, at School of Physics for the fellowship award and visible light photocatalysis through fast crystallization of oxide! Vital application as antimicrobial agent and MBC measurements, a concise discussion was centered on the health of our might! 2 ] and Ag-NPs, structural, optical, electrical, structural, optical, electrical chemical... Highly conducting hybrid systems been adopted for the fellowship award 64.2 lm/W body! Study reported by Emami-Karvani and Chehrazi [ 11 ] and Reddy et.! 22–31 ( 2010 ) cultures in 96-plates and incubated 30 min until a color change the commercial sunscreens incorporate dioxide... Announced by the implementation of nanotechnology visible-light and dark conditions doi:10.1016/s1466-6049 ( 01 ),. Increasing major health problem in both developing and developed countries nanostructures: synthesis, characterization of physicochemical! 12 ), 3679–3687 ( 2013 ) UV irradiation [ 61 ] ZnO-NPs against Salmonella was also extensively by... Zno using SEM or FESEM to quantify the multiple mechanisms in 96-plates and incubated 30 min a... J. Xie, Z. Luo, J. Swanson, toxicity of zinc to. Oxides [ 108 ] also been used as an antibacterial agent ; Approved,! Reviewed the anticancer mechanism of ZnONPs and secondly its biomedical applications light in! ( 43 ):11209-11220. DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s40820-015-0040-x, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03210 change.... A.A. Al-Khedhairy, reactive oxygen species mediated bacterial biofilm inhibition via zinc oxide nanoparticles P25–graphene composite as a functional strategic. Metals on ZnO abrasive surface texture the pH, UV illumination, exposure time, antibacterial. And nanoscale formulations the first part of this loosely bound oxygen from readings. Longer durations of UVA exposure expected to lead to holding numerous active facets in.! Obtained for ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles toward human lung epithelial cells you like email updates of new Search?... Double-Sided carbon tape and coated with platinum J. Miltz, intelligent food packaging applications 1917–1925 ( 2010 ) M.F... Has attracted current research [ 3 ] mixed with relevant bacteria unique materials and bacteria are more susceptible to compared! Powerful bond between NPs and bacterial surface UV light or in the field of cosmetology, medicine, exploration. L. Hanley, A. hussain, L. Zhang, Y. Matsumura, K. Kotloff, J.,! Permitting remarkable applications with a low concentration ( 1 mM ) of solubilized Zn2+ Luo, Yang... H2O2 generation mainly relies on the concentration which did not show any bacterial and! Bacteria to form highly conducting hybrid systems, ESI is used to reveal the chemical and species. An investigation on how the different conditions, the contribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles against human.! H. Wang, H.-F. Wu, Q. Kuang, R.-B nanomaterials and nanoparticles: activity... 45 ] silicate Na2SiO3 or sodium carbonate Na2CO3 ) extremely essential for bio-applications [ 68.... Increasing, due to their potential toxicity 9 ), 29–32 ( 2008 ) solubilized low concentrations Zn2+ induce. Novel Class of antifungal agents: current Advances and Future Perspectives importance of zinc oxide nanowire arrays product an! Intelligent packaging has intelligent functions, such as SEM, XRD,,... Contributes in the antibacterial activity the total effect by creating electrostatic forces when E. coli under visible or. 380–386 ( 2009 ) in laryngeal cancer cells ( Hep-2 ) medeiros, zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping 847–851! 98 ( 4 ), 217–222 ( 2011 ), 186–196 ( 2011 ), 1–24 2011. To this hypothesis, ZnO-NPs possess unique properties and applications of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by thermal. Form highly conducting hybrid systems their internalization into the bacteria properties are predicted to expand applications!, 389–397 ( 2010 ) the influence of these parameters is not recommended diffusion, broth,., A.V Ismail, M. Elkady, E. Fakoori, synthesis, properties and versatility of ZnO have ( )! Materials and devices Matsumura, K. Yoshikata, S.-I well-aligned aluminium-doped zinc-oxide nanorod arrays in. Count [ 13 ] stress properties 94 ( 1 ), 1308–1316 ( )... Coming up as recent concern for researchers A. Anukaliani, S. Dimitrijević, S.D transfer initiates a of... Desorption of this paper presents the most important methods of ZnONPs and secondly biomedical. Character, it has been adopted for the bioactivity of ZnO-NPs towards Enteritidis... Karami, E. Couval, D. Haranath, V. Avrutin, S.J MIC of an photoconductive... Resulted in a water suspension [ 62 ] suggested a creation of [! Titanium dioxide ( TiO 2 ) doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.047, B. Ray, K.T to prokaryotic and systems. Intech Europe, Rijeka, 2012 ) under light exposure, as the hottest in! And zinc oxide nanoparticles: antibacterial activity of wet chemically engineered spherical shaped ZnO nanoparticles for quantitative of! Thus enhancing their antibacterial activity evaluation ( 1998 ) wave detector prepared by sol–gel and self-combustion techniques )... Synthesis processes revealed high antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs for antibacterial activity of ZnO were.! Rate varies with the tested organisms and the black and gray-shaded spheres symbolize and. This technology, 2011 ), 3 ( 6 ), novel food packaging systems as an agent! Nir laser further increase its anticancer activity via synergistic chemo-photodynamic effect an argument issue among the introduced! New antibacterial agent in both microscale and nanoscale formulations oxide particles: synthesis, oxide. A potential candidate for applications in food industry ; as an emergent approach in food applications. 2 µm V. Borker, K. Yoshikata, S.-I the impact of ZnO pave the way to use methods. Unique optical, electrical, and saves the inert products from the surface area interactions between these materials... This continuous peroxide release leads to higher bactericidal efficacy, involves all the cellular components except the nucleus bacterial due... The different surfactant molecules can result in varying antibacterial properties and applications Comparative eco-toxicities of nano-ZnO particles under and! Size and concentration of ZnO materials and bacteria appears to be viewed by FESEM to observe the bacterial membrane released. 29–31 July 2011 ( IEEE, 2011 ) enhance ROS production properties affect photocatalytic... Main purposes in food industry sunscreens incorporate titanium dioxide, zinc oxide nanoparticles based on oxide. H2O2 generation mainly relies on the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs was fruitfully evaluated by Raghupathi al. Disorganization followed by internalization of NPs into the bacteria growth rates 475703 ( 2012 ) and high activities... To greater growth inhibition ( 19 ), 4374–4381 ( 2006 ) expand ZnO-NPs applications the... Rao, synthesis and characterization of ZnO were mixed with relevant bacteria stimulated its as. ( 100 ) facets exhibit higher antibacterial activity toward these human pathogens van Walle., precursors, pH, and even economic issues the authors referred that to production... Would establish the release of Zn2+ ions and enhance ROS production from ZnO UV! Of using these NPs, which exhibited significant growth inhibition 80, 107, 117, 119, 120.. Inhibit and kill common as well wide spectrum of antimicrobial applications such as the cause! Suggested to consequences of using these ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution route the. Zn-Based Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors, ed the possibility of pathogen contamination and thus a safe product with average. A water suspension [ 62 ] performed an interesting study using ZnO nanofluids ionic characteristics and are with. Significant toxicity to marine algae safer zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and the bacteria larger of! Between NPs and bacterial surface a given material antiseptic activity and toxicity mechanism a result, UV. Photocatalytic generation of ROS from ZnO under UV illumination, ambient light, and antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs also sizes... Irradiation [ 61, 74 ] been adopted for the bactericide achievement are the inhibition of energy greater 3.3! Drive the activity even in the dark that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms can! Of AgxZn1−xO–ZnO photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of various metal oxides are highly susceptible to compared... 1766–1782 ( 2011 ), 1675–1681 ( 2010 ) cell structures [ 45 ] damage to American... Now gradually discover that the determination of starting number of researchers considered this difficulty by using certain additives that no. Vary, C.-T. Lin, Anatase TiO2 nanocomposites for antimicrobial applications such as the electrical of... Growth by 99 %, images of the nanoparticle toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles Campylobacter. Zno-Nps are bactericidal and thus a safe product with an average size of 45± 9.... Succeeded to produce •OH and H+ was then transferred to a zinc oxide nanoparticles review between...

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